Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
SINTX Technologies, Inc. (“SINTX” or “the Company”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on December 10, 1996 (and was previously known as Amedica Corporation). SINTX is a commercial-stage biomaterial company focused on using its silicon nitride technology platform to develop, manufacture, and commercialize a broad range of medical devices. The Company believes it is the first and only manufacturer to use silicon nitride in medical applications. The Company acquired US Spine, Inc. (“US Spine”), a Delaware spinal products corporation with operations in Florida, on September 20, 2010. The Company’s products are primarily sold in the United States.
As further explained in Note 14, On October 1, 2018, the Company completed the sale of its retail spine business to CTL Medical, a Dallas, Texas-based privately held medical device manufacturer. As a result of the sale, CTL Medical is now the exclusive owner of Amedica’s portfolio of metal and silicon nitride spine products, which are presently sold under the brand names of Taurus, Preference, and Valeo, with access to future silicon nitride spine technologies. Manufacturing, R&D, and all intellectual property related to the core, non-spine, biomaterial technology of silicon nitride remains with the Company. The Company will serve as CTL’s exclusive OEM provider of silicon nitride products.
On October 30, 2018, the Company amended its Certificate of Incorporation with the State of Delaware to change its corporate name to SINTX Technologies, Inc. in order to better reflect its focus on silicon nitride science and technologies and pipeline of silicon nitride-based products in various biomedical applications. The Company also changed its trading symbol on the NASDAQ Capital Market to “SINT”.
The previous name, Amedica, has transferred to CTL Medical, which is now CTL-Amedica. The Company’s new corporate brand reflects both the Company’s core competence in the science and production of silicon nitride ceramics, as well as encouraging prospects for the future, as an OEM supplier of spine implants to CTL-Amedica, and several opportunities outside of spine. As SINTX Technologies Inc., the Company will focus on developing silicon nitride in terms of product design, and future biomaterial formulations, for a variety of OEM customers.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and include all assets, liabilities and operations of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, US Spine. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue to operate as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and settlement of liabilities in the normal course of business, and does not include any adjustments to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classifications of liabilities that may result from uncertainty related to its ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date of issuance of these consolidated financial statements.
For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company incurred a net loss of $8.7 million and $9.3 million, respectively, and used cash in operations of $9.3 million and $4.7 million, respectively. The Company had an accumulated deficit of $229.3 million and $220.6 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. To date, the Company’s operations have been principally financed from proceeds from the issuance of preferred and common stock, convertible debt and bank debt and, to a lesser extent, cash generated from product sales. It is anticipated that the Company will continue to generate operating losses and use cash in operations. The Company’s continuation as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to increase sales, implement cost saving measures and/or raise additional funds through the capital markets. Whether and when the Company can attain profitability and positive cash flows from operations or obtain additional financing is uncertain.
In 2016, the Company implemented certain cost saving measures, including workforce and office space reductions, and continued to evaluate additional cost savings alternatives during 2017 and 2018. These additional cost savings measures may include additional workforce and research and development reductions, as well as cuts to certain other operating expenses. The Company is actively generating additional scientific and clinical data to have it published in leading industry publications. The unique features of our silicon nitride material are not well known, and we believe the publication of such data would help sales efforts as the Company approaches new prospects. The Company is also making additional changes to the sales strategy, including a focus on revenue growth by expanding the use of silicon nitride in other areas outside of spinal fusion applications.
The Company has common stock that is publicly traded and has been able to successfully raise capital when needed since the date of the Company’s initial public offering. In March 2018, the Company closed on gross proceeds of $1.4 million, before payment of placement agent fees and costs on a warrant reprice and exercise transaction (see Note 8). Additionally, on May 14, 2018, the Company closed on a public offering of units, consisting of convertible preferred stock and warrants, for gross proceeds of $15 million, which excludes underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by the Company. The Company is engaged in discussions with investment and banking firms to examine financing alternatives, including options for a public offering of the Company’s preferred or common stock. On October 1, 2018, the Company sold the retail spine business. This sale will provide cash flows totaling $2.5 million over the next eighteen months (See Notes 13 and 14) and $3.5 million for the following eighteen months. The buyer also assumed the Company’s $2.5 million related party note payable.
Although the Company is seeking to obtain additional equity and/or debt financing, such funding is not assured and may not be available to the Company on favorable or acceptable terms and may involve significant restrictive covenants. Any additional equity financing is also not assured and, if available to the Company, will most likely be dilutive to its current stockholders. If the Company is not able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on a timely basis, the impact on the Company will be material and adverse.
These uncertainties create substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties.
Reverse Stock Split
On November 10, 2017, the Company effected a 1 for 12 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock. The par value and the authorized shares of the common and convertible preferred stock were not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split. All common stock share and per-share amounts for all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements prior to November 10, 2017 have been adjusted retroactively to reflect the reverse stock split.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. As of December 31, 2018, the most significant estimate relates to derivative liabilities.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Customers
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. Because the financial institution that the Company currently uses does not participate in the Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service (“CDARS”), the Company does not presently have a program to limit its exposure to credit loss. The Company’s deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits.
At December 31, 2018, one customer receivable balance was 51% of the Company’s total trade accounts receivable from continuing operations. One customer accounted for 100% of the Company’s total revenues from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The Company derives its product revenue primarily from the sale of spinal fusion products, used in the treatment of spine disorders to CTL Medical, with whom the Company has a 10-year exclusive sales agreement in place. The Company is currently pursuing other sales opportunities for silicon nitride outside the spinal fusion application. The Company recognizes revenue from sales at the time the product is shipped. In general, the Company’s customers do not have any rights of return or exchange.
Costs of Revenue
The expenses that are included in costs of revenue include all in-house manufacturing costs for the products we manufacture.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all cash on deposit, money market accounts and highly-liquid debt instruments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost for manufactured inventory determined under the standard costs, which approximate actual costs, determined on the first-in first-out (“FIFO”) method. Manufactured inventory consists of raw material, direct labor and manufacturing overhead cost components. The Company reviews the carrying value of inventory on a periodic basis for excess or obsolete items, and records any write-down as a cost of revenue, as necessary.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, including leasehold improvements, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Property and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the related lease term, generally five years.
The Company reviews the carrying value of the Company’s property and equipment that are held and used in the Company’s operations for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is determined based upon expected undiscounted future net cash flows from the operations to which the assets relate, utilizing management’s best estimate, assumptions, and projections at the time. If the carrying value is determined to be unrecoverable from future operating cash flows, the asset is deemed impaired and an impairment charge would be recognized to the extent the carrying value exceeded the estimated fair value of the asset. The Company estimates the fair value of assets based on the estimated future discounted cash flows of the asset.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are carried at invoiced amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a regular basis, the Company evaluates accounts receivable and estimates an allowance for doubtful accounts, as needed, based on various factors such as customers’ current credit conditions, length of time past due, and the general economy as a whole. Receivables are written off against the allowance when they are deemed uncollectible.
Long Lived Intangible Assets and Goodwill
The Company evaluates the carrying value of definite-lived intangibles when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors the Company considers important which could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of its use of acquired assets or its overall business strategy, and significant industry or economic trends. The Company amortizes definite-lived intangible assets on a straight-line basis over their useful lives. The Company recorded no impairment loss for definite-lived intangible assets during the year ended December 31, 2017. As explained above, the Company sold most intangible assets that had a carrying value to CTL Medical, retaining the carrying value of only one trademark asset.
When the Company determines that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators, the Company determines the recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to net future undiscounted cash flows that the asset is expected to generate and recognizes an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the asset.
If the Company’s revenues or other estimated operating results are not achieved at or above our forecasted level, and the Company is unable to recover such costs through price increases, the carrying value of certain of the Company’s assets may prove to be unrecoverable and we may incur impairment charges of definitive-live intangible assets.
In accordance with ASC 350, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, goodwill is not amortized but is required to be reviewed for impairment at least annually or when events or circumstances indicate that carrying value may exceed fair value. As part of that annual review, the Company determined that circumstances and events indicted that goodwill needed to be completely impaired and did so during the third quarter 2018.
Derivative liabilities include the fair value of instruments such as common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants and convertible features of notes, that are initially recorded at fair value and are required to be re-measured to fair value at each reporting period under provisions of ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, or ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The change in fair value of the instruments is recognized as a component of other income (expense) in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations until the instruments settle, expire or are no longer classified as derivative liabilities. The Company estimates the fair value of these instruments using the Black-Scholes-Merton or Monte-Carlo valuation models depending on the complexity of the underlying instrument. The significant assumptions used in estimating the fair value include the exercise price, volatility of the stock underlying the instrument, risk-free interest rate, estimated fair value of the stock underlying the instrument and the estimated life of the instrument.
Research and Development
All research and development costs, including those funded by third parties, are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist of engineering, product development, test-part manufacturing, testing, developing and validating the manufacturing process, and regulatory related costs. Research and development expenses also include employee compensation, employee and nonemployee stock-based compensation, supplies and materials, consultant services, and travel and facilities expenses related to research activities.
We expect to incur additional research and development costs as we continue to develop new spinal fusion products, our product candidates for total joint replacements, such as our total hip replacement product candidate, and dental applications, which may increase our total research and development expenses.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. The primary component of the Company’s advertising expenses is advertising in trade periodicals. Advertising costs were less than $0.1 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the financial statement carrying value of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the fiscal year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company operates in various tax jurisdictions and is subject to audit by various tax authorities. The Company provides for tax contingencies whenever it is deemed probable that a tax asset has been impaired, or a tax liability has been incurred for events such as tax claims or changes in tax laws. Tax contingencies are based upon their technical merits relative tax law and the specific facts and circumstances as of each reporting period. Changes in facts and circumstances could result in material changes to the amounts recorded for such tax contingencies.
The Company recognizes uncertain income tax positions taken on income tax returns at the largest amount that is more-likely than-not to be sustained upon audit by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained.
The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions is to record such items as a component of our income tax provision. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not record any material interest income, interest expense or penalties related to uncertain tax positions or the settlement of audits for prior periods.
The Company measures stock-based compensation expense related to employee stock-based awards based on the estimated fair value of the awards as determined on the date of grant and is recognized as expense over the remaining requisite service period. The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model to estimate the fair value of employee stock options. The Black-Scholes-Merton model requires the input of highly subjective and complex assumptions, including the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant, the expected term of the stock option, and the expected volatility of the Company’s common stock over the period equal to the expected term of the grant. The Company estimates forfeitures at the date of grant and revises the estimates, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The Company accounts for stock options to purchase shares of stock that are issued to non-employees based on the estimated fair value of such instruments using the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model.
Because the Company was a privately-held company with no trading history prior to February 2014 and has limited stock history since February 2014, the Company utilizes the historical stock price volatility from a representative group of public companies to estimate expected stock price volatility and our historical stock price. The Company selected companies from the medical device industry, specifically those who are focused on the design, development and commercialization of products for the treatment of spine disorders, and who have similar characteristics to us, such as stage of life cycle and size. The Company intends to continue to utilize the historical volatility of the same or similar public companies to estimate expected volatility until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the price of our publicly traded stock becomes available. The Company uses the simplified method as prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-based Payment, to calculate the expected term of stock option grants to employees as the Company does not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term of stock options granted to employees. The Company utilizes a dividend yield of zero because the Company has never paid cash dividends and has no current intention to pay cash dividends. The risk-free rate of return used for each grant is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for instruments with a similar expected life.
Offering costs consist of legal, accounting, and other advisory costs related to the Company’s efforts to raise debt and equity capital.
Offering costs paid in cash or by issuing warrants associated with the Company’s equity fundraising activities are either recorded to additional paid in capital as a reduction of the proceeds or immediately expensed.
Offering costs paid in cash or by issuing warrants associated with the Company’s debt fundraising activities are recorded as a debt discount and amortized as interest expense over the life of the debt or immediately expensed with the offset to additional paid in capital.
Accounting Pronouncement Adopted In 2018
In March 2016, the FASB updated the accounting guidance related to stock compensation. This update simplifies the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as the well as classification in the statement of cash flows. The standard is effective for the Company for its annual period beginning January 1, 2018. The adoptions of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncement Adopted in 2017
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330) Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory”. The amendments clarify that an entity should measure inventory within the scope of this update at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Substantial and unusual losses that result from subsequent measurement of inventory should be disclosed in the consolidated financial statements. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those annual periods. The amendments are to be applied prospectively with earlier application permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
New Accounting Pronouncement, Not Yet Adopted
In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) updated accounting guidance on the following eight specific cash flow classification issues: (1) debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs; (2) settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments or other debt instruments with coupon interest rates that are insignificant in relation to the effective interest rate of the borrowing; (3) contingent consideration payments made after a business combination; (4) proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims; (5) proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies, including bank-owned life insurance policies; (6) distributions received from equity method investees; (7) beneficial interests in securitization transactions; and (8) separately identifiable cash flows and application of the predominance principle. Current GAAP does not include specific guidance on these eight cash flow classification issues. These updates are effective for the Company for its annual period beginning January 1, 2019, and interim periods therein, with early adoption permitted. The guidance in this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB updated the accounting guidance related to leases as part of a joint project with the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Under the new guidance, a lessee will be required to recognize assets and liabilities for capital and operating leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. Additionally, this update will require disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases, including qualitative and quantitative requirements. The standard is effective for the Company for its annual period beginning January 1, 2020, and interim periods therein, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact this new standard may have on its consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, in addition to several amendments issued during 2016, the FASB updated the accounting guidance related to revenue from contracts with customers, which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. The standard defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP. The standard is effective for the Company for its annual period beginning January 1, 2019, and interim periods therein, and shall be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company has performed an evaluation of the new accounting standard and has determined the impact that the new standard will have on its consolidated financial statements is not significant.
In January of 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04—Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The amendments in this guidance to eliminate the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure goodwill impairment charge (Step 2). As a result, an impairment charge will equal the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The amendment should be applied on a prospective basis. The guidance is effective for goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted for goodwill impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017. The impact of this guidance for the Company will depend on the outcomes of future goodwill impairment tests.
The Company has reviewed all other recently issued, but not yet adopted, accounting standards, in order to determine their effects, if any, on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Based on that review, the Company believes that none of these pronouncements will have a significant effect on its consolidated financial statements.
Net Loss Per Share – Basic and Diluted
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period that are determined to be dilutive. Dilutive common stock equivalents are comprised of convertible preferred stock, warrants for the purchase of common stock and stock options outstanding under the Company’s equity incentive plans.
Potentially dilutive securities not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would be anti-dilutive are as follows (in common stock equivalent shares):
Below are basic and diluted loss per share data for the year ended December 31, 2018, which are in thousands except for share and per share data:
Below are basic and diluted loss per share data for the year ended December 31, 2017, which are in thousands except for share and per share data:
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef