Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Amedica Corporation (“Amedica” or “the Company”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on December 10, 1996. Amedica is a commercial-stage biomaterial company focused on using its silicon nitride technology platform to develop, manufacture, and commercialize a broad range of medical devices. The Company believes it is the first and only manufacturer to use silicon nitride in medical applications. The Company acquired US Spine, Inc. (“US Spine”), a Delaware spinal products corporation with operations in Florida, on September 20, 2010. The Company’s products are primarily sold in the U.S.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”), and include all assets and liabilities of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, US Spine. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company incurred a net loss of $32.6 million and $8.3 million, respectively and used cash in operations of $14.5 million and $9.9 million, respectively. The Company had an accumulated deficit of $172.5 million and $139.9 million at December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. To date, the Company’s operations have been principally financed from proceeds from the issuance of preferred and common stock, convertible debt and bank debt and, to a lesser extent, cash generated from product sales. It is anticipated that the Company will continue to generate operating losses and use cash in operations through 2015.
As discussed further in Note 7, the Company refinanced its long-term debt and entered into a term loan with Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc. (“Hercules Technology”), as administrative and collateral agent for the lenders thereunder and as lender, and Hercules Technology III, LP, as lender (the “Hercules Term Loan”). The Hercules Term Loan has a liquidity covenant that requires the Company to maintain a cash balance in excess of $9.0 million. At December 31, 2014, the Company’s cash balance was approximately $18.2 million. The Company anticipates that it will need to obtain additional funding during the fourth quarter of 2015 to maintain compliance with the liquidity covenants related to the Hercules Term Loan through 2015. Furthermore, if the Company is unable to access additional funds prior to becoming non-compliant with the liquidity covenant, the entire remaining balance of the debt could become immediately due and payable at the option of the lender. Although the Company will seek additional financing, additional funding may not be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. Any additional equity financing, if available to the Company, may not be available on favorable terms and will most likely be dilutive to its current stockholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve more restrictive covenants. The Company’s ability to access capital when needed is not assured and, if not achieved on a timely basis, will materially harm its business, financial condition and results of operations. These uncertainties create substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. No adjustment has been made to the Company’s financial statements as a result of this uncertainty.
Reverse Stock Split
On February 11, 2014, the Company effected a 1 for 25.7746 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock. The par value and the authorized shares of the common and convertible preferred stock were not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split. All common stock share and per-share amounts for all periods presented in these financial statements prior to February 11, 2014 have been adjusted retroactively to reflect the reverse stock split.
On February 12, 2014, the Company completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of its common stock, in which the Company sold and issued 3,682,900 shares, including 182,900 shares sold pursuant to the exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option, at an issuance price of $5.75 per share, less underwriting discounts and commissions. As a result of the IPO, the Company received proceeds of approximately $15.4 million, net of approximately $5.8 million in underwriting and other offering costs.
On November 26, 2014, the Company completed a secondary offering, in which the Company sold and issued 11,441,646 units. Each unit was issued at a price of $1.14 and consisted of one share of common stock and one common stock warrant. As a result of the secondary offering, the Company received proceeds of approximately $11.3 million, net of approximately $1.7 million in cash underwriting and other offering costs.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Some of the more significant estimates relate to inventory, stock-based compensation, long-lived and intangible assets, and derivative liabilities.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Customers
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable and restricted cash. The Company limits its exposure to credit loss by placing its cash and cash equivalents with high credit-quality financial institutions in bank deposits, money market funds, U.S. government securities and other investment grade debt securities that have strong credit ratings. The Company has established guidelines relative to diversification of its cash and marketable securities and their maturities that are intended to secure safety and liquidity. These guidelines are periodically reviewed and modified to take advantage of trends in yields and interest rates and changes in the Company’s operations and financial position. Although the Company may deposit its cash and cash equivalents with multiple financial institutions, its deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits.
The Company’s customers are primarily hospitals and surgical centers. At December 31, 2014, no customer receivable balance was 10% or greater of the Company’s total trade accounts receivable. At December 31, 2013, one customer receivable balance was 15% of the Company’s total trade accounts receivable. There were two customers that accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenue representing 28% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014. There was one customer that accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenue representing 14% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2013.
Credit to customers is granted based upon an analysis of the customers’ individual credit worthiness. The Company’s allowance for bad debts as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 was $54,000 and $49,000, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company recorded bad debt expense of $65,000 and $5,000, respectively.
The Company derives its product revenue primarily from the sale of spinal fusion devices and related products used in the treatment of spine disorders. The Company’s product revenue is generated from sales to two types of customers: (1) surgeons and hospitals and (2) stocking distributors. Most of our products are sold on a consignment basis through a network of independent sales distributors; however, the Company also sells its products to independent stocking distributors. Product revenue is recognized when all four of the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists; (2) delivery of the products has occurred; (3) the selling price of the product is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. The Company generates the majority of its revenue from the sale of inventory that is consigned to independent sales distributors that sell the Company’s products to surgeons and hospitals. For these products, we recognize revenue at the time we are notified the product has been used or implanted and all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. For all other transactions, the Company recognizes revenue when title and risk of loss transfer to the stocking distributor, and all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. The Company generally recognizes revenue from sales to stocking distributors at the time the product is shipped to the distributor. Stocking distributors, who sell the products to their customers, take title to the products and assume all risks of ownership at time of shipment. The Company’s stocking distributors are obligated to pay within specified terms regardless of when, if ever, they sell the products. The Company’s policy is to classify shipping and handling costs billed to customers as an offset to total shipping expense in the statement of operations, primarily within sales and marketing. In general, the Company’s customers do not have any rights of return or exchange.
Cost of Revenue
The expenses that are included in cost of revenue include all direct product costs and manufacturing costs. Specific provisions for excess or obsolete inventory are also included in cost of revenue. Beginning in January 2013, cost of revenue also includes the 2.3% excise tax on the sale of medical devices in the United States.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Investments
The Company considers all cash on deposit, money market accounts and highly-liquid debt instruments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents. Restricted cash consisted of cash we received from payments of our accounts receivables held in a segregated account that could have been applied to pay amounts owed under our revolving credit facility with General Electric Capital Corporation. The Company’s investments in marketable debt and equity securities were deemed by management to be available for sale and were reported at fair market value with the net unrealized appreciation or depreciation reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ deficit. At the time of sale, any realized appreciation or depreciation, calculated by the specific identification method, was recognized in other income and expense.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost for manufactured inventory determined under the standard cost method which approximates first-in first-out (“FIFO”). Manufactured inventory consists of raw material, direct labor and manufacturing overhead cost components. Inventories purchased from third-party manufacturers are stated at the lower of cost or market using the first-in, first-out method. The Company reviews the carrying value of inventory on a periodic basis for excess or obsolete items, and records any write-down as a cost of revenue, as necessary. It is reasonably possible that the Company may be required to make adjustments to the carrying value of inventory in future periods. Inventory write-downs for excess or obsolete inventory are recorded as a cost of revenue. The Company holds consigned inventory at distributor and other customer locations where revenue recognition criteria have not yet been achieved.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, including surgical instruments and leasehold improvements, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Property and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the related lease term, generally five years.
In accounting for long-lived assets, the Company makes estimates about the expected useful lives of the assets, the expected residual values of certain of these assets, and the potential for impairment based on the fair value of the assets and the cash flows they generate. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events and circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recovered. The Company has not recognized any impairment loss for property and equipment for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
Long-Lived Assets, Indefinite-lived Intangible and Goodwill
Periodically, the Company assesses potential impairment of its long-lived assets, which include property, equipment, and acquired intangible assets. The Company performs an impairment review whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors the Company considers important which could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of its use of acquired assets or its overall business strategy, and significant industry or economic trends. When the Company determines that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators, the Company determines the recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to net future undiscounted cash flows that the asset is expected to generate and recognizes an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the asset. The Company amortizes finite-lived intangible assets on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The Company recorded no impairment loss for definite-lived intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
The Company tests goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment annually as of December 31, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill or indefinitely-lived intangibles may be impaired. For goodwill, the Company initially assesses qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. For goodwill impairment testing purposes, we consider the value of our equity, including the value of our convertible preferred stock, in the total carrying value of our single reporting unit. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, the Company determines it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the Company performs a first step by comparing the book value of net assets to the fair value of the Company’s single reporting unit. If the fair value is determined to be less than the book value, a second step is performed to compute the amount of impairment as the difference between the estimated fair value of goodwill and the carrying value. The Company performed the first step and determined that it was not more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the Company’s single reporting unit was less than its carrying amount and no goodwill impairment was recognized during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
The impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets not subject to amortization involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of the intangible asset, using the income approach, with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company recorded no impairment loss for indefinite-lived intangible assets during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
Derivative liabilities includes the fair value of instruments such as common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants and convertible features of notes, that are initially recorded at fair value and are required to be re-measured to fair value at each reporting period under provisions of ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, or ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The change in fair value of the instruments is recognized as a component of other income (expense), in the Company’s statements of operations and comprehensive loss until the instruments settle or expire. The Company estimates the fair value of these instruments using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. The significant assumptions used in estimating the fair value include the exercise price, volatility of the stock underlying the instrument, risk-free interest rate, estimated fair value of the stock underlying the instrument and the estimated life of the instrument.
The effect of changes to these significant assumptions on the estimated liability for these instruments is as follows:
Research and Development
All research and development costs, including those funded by third parties, are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist of engineering, product development, test-part manufacturing, testing, developing and validating the manufacturing process, and regulatory related costs. Research and development expenses also include employee compensation, employee and nonemployee stock-based compensation, supplies and materials, consultant services, and travel and facilities expenses related to research activities.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. The primary component of the Company’s advertising expenses is advertising in trade periodicals. Advertising costs were approximately $149,000 and $403,000 million for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
The Company recognizes a liability or asset for the deferred tax consequences of all temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years when the reported amounts of the assets and liabilities are recovered or settled. The Company recognizes interest and penalties as a component of the provision for income taxes. No interest or penalties were recognized in the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
The Company measures stock-based compensation expense related to employee stock-based awards based on the estimated fair value of the awards as determined on the date of grant and is recognized as expense over the remaining requisite service period. The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model to estimate the fair value of employee stock options. The Black-Scholes-Merton model requires the input of highly subjective and complex assumptions, including the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant, the expected term of the stock option, and the expected volatility of the Company’s common stock over the period equal to the expected term of the grant. The Company estimates forfeitures at the date of grant and revises the estimates, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
The Company accounts for stock options to purchase shares of stock that are issued to non-employees based on the estimated fair value of such instruments using the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model. The measurement of stock-based compensation expense for these instruments is variable and subject to periodic adjustments to the estimated fair value until the awards vest. Any resulting change in the estimated fair value is recognized in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations during the period in which the related services are rendered.
Offering costs consist of legal, accounting and other advisory costs related to the Company’s efforts to raise capital. At December 31, 2013, the Company had deferred offering costs of $2.8 million related to the IPO of the Company’s common stock. Additional costs related to the Company’s IPO activities were deferred until the completion of the IPO in February 2014, at which time they were reclassified to additional paid-in capital as a reduction of the IPO proceeds.
Since the warrants issued in the Company’s November 2014 secondary offering were considered liabilities, a portion of the offering costs were expensed and the remaining amount was reclassified to additional paid-in capital as a reduction of proceeds from the secondary offering.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods therein, and shall be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is evaluating the potential impact of this adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15 Disclosure of Uncertainties About an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which provides guidance on determining when and how to disclose going concern uncertainties in the financial statements. The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The update is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The impact on the Company’s financial statements of adopting ASU 2014-15 is currently being assessed by management.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. Dilutive common stock equivalents are comprised of convertible preferred stock, warrants for the purchase of convertible preferred stock and common stock, convertible notes, and stock options and restricted stock units outstanding under the Company’s equity incentive plans. For all periods presented, there is no difference in the number of shares used to calculate basic and diluted shares outstanding due to the Company’s net loss position.
Potentially dilutive securities not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would be anti-dilutive are as follows (in common stock equivalent shares):
Shares are based on the terms of securities outstanding as of the date presented. When anti-dilution provisions were triggered for the Series F convertible preferred stock, additional dilution occurred.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
No definition available.